1) Department of Neurosurgery, Chita Kousei Hospital 81-6 Nishitani Kouwa Mihama-chou Chita-gun Aichi, JAPAN 470-2404
TEL +81-569-82-0395, FAX +81-569-82-4333
2) Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya City University 1 Kawasumi Mizuho-chou Mizuho-ku Nagoya Aichi, JAPAN 467-8602
TEL +81-52-853-8286, FAX +81-52-851-5541
3) Department of Radiology, Higashi Municipal Hospital of Nagoya 1 Wakamizu Chikusa-ku Nagoya Aichi, JAPAN 464-8547
TEL +81-52-721-7171, FAX +81-52-721-1308
Acquired AVF commonly develops secondary to sinus thrombosis or trauma. Although, there have been reports of the delayed development of AVF after open surgery, it has not been reported after interventional radiology. Herewith, we report a patient with posterior fossa arteriovenous fistula developed after interventional radiology. In a 52-year-old man with subarachnoid hemorrhage, angiography showed a dissecting aneurysm of the left vertebral artery and hypoplasia of the left transverse sinus. The aneurysm was embolized using Gugliemli detachable coils. Follow-up angiography demonstrated an arteriovenous fistula arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Because all AVFs have the potential to cause intracerebral hemorrhage, careful follow-up is needed . Consequently, this case emphasizes the potential risk of late AVF developing after interventional radiology.
Interpretation: Interventional radiology may cause arteriovenous fistulas in patients with sinus hypoplasia.
Recently, Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) have been increasingly used to treat ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. We encountered a patient in whom a posterior fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) developed after GDC embolization of a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery(VA).
A 52-year-old man was admitted with severe headache, and computed tomography demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage. At 3.5 hours after the onset, cerebral angiography showed a left VA dissecting aneurysm with extravasation (Fig.1 A) and hypoplasia of the left transverse sinus (Fig.1 B). The pseudolumen and proximal VA beyond the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were embolized using GDC (Fig.1 C). Immediately after embolization, there was no AVF (Fig.1 D). However, repeat angiography after 7 days demonstrated a posterior fossa AVF arising from the PICA (Fig.1 E). He was discharged without neurological deficits and has remained asymptomatic for 12 months. Repeat angiography after 1, 3, and 6 months showed no changes of the AVF. However, the 12-month angiogram demonstrated slower flow in the AVF and revealed the course of the shunt (Fig.1 F-K); from the PICA to the vein of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle and from the petrosal vein to the superior petrosal vein.
Acquired AVF commonly develops secondary to sinus thrombosis or trauma 1). Although, there have been reports of the delayed development of AVF after open surgery 1) 2) 3), it has not been reported after interventional radiology. In most patients with postoperative AVF, surgery sacrificed the sigmoid sinus or superior petrosal sinus 2) 3). Our patient had pre-existing hypoplasia of the left transverse sinus. Nabors and coworkers reported two cases of postoperative dural AVF occurring at the site of suboccipital craniectomy without sinus sacrifice, and suggested that the increased arterial supply from the scalp and muscular vessels was responsible 1). After our patient's left VA was embolized, increased perfusion of the left PICA might have caused the AVF in a similar manner. According to Chaudhary and coworkers 4), AVFs represent the pathological opening-up of physiological arteriovenous shunts in the dural walls of the venous sinuses, and the increased arterial supply may have opened such physiological shunts in our patient. In any event, this case emphasizes the potential risk of late AVF developing after interventional radiology.
Our patient was treated conservatively because he had no symptoms, and no angiographic progression. In fact, there was a tendency for spontaneous involution of the AVF over time. However, careful follow-up is needed because all AVFs have the potential to cause intracerebral hemorrhage£µ¡Ë.
Fig.1 Initial arteriogram; sequential changes of arteriogram. A: LAO-dissecting aneurysm of the left VA. B: A-P (venous phase)-left transverse sinus hypoplasia. C,D: LAO-after embolization of the aneurysm. E: Left vertebral arteriogram at 7 days after embolization showing the fistula in the arterial phase. F-K: Angiography after 12 months-lateral views; sequential changes of arteriogram. I, J, and K are enlarged views of F, G, and H, respectively. The fistula is demonstrated in a later phase than in the previous angiograms. Arrows show the arteriovenous shunts running from the PICA to the vein of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle and from the petrosal vein to the superior petrosal vein.
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